|Abstract from DBPedia||
Sewage (or domestic sewage, domestic wastewater, municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced by a community of people. It is typically transported through a sewer system. Sewage consists of wastewater discharged from residences and from commercial, institutional and public facilities that exist in the locality. Sub-types of sewage are greywater (from sinks, bathtubs, showers, dishwashers, and clothes washers) and blackwater (the water used to flush toilets, combined with the human waste that it flushes away). Sewage also contains soaps and detergents. Food waste may be present from dishwashing, and food quantities may be increased where garbage disposal units are used. In regions where toilet paper is used rather than bidets, that paper is also added to the sewage. Sewage contains macro-pollutants and micro-pollutants, and may also incorporate some municipal solid waste and pollutants from industrial wastewater. Sewage usually travels from a building's plumbing either into a sewer, which will carry it elsewhere, or into an onsite sewage facility. Collection of sewage of several households together usually takes places in either sanitary sewers or combined sewers. The former is designed to exclude stormwater flows whereas the latter is designed to also take stormwater. The production of sewage generally corresponds to the water consumption. A range of factors influence water consumption and hence the sewage flowrates per person. These include: Water availability (the opposite of water scarcity), water supply options, climate (warmer climates may lead to greater water consumption), community size, economic level of the community, level of industrialization, metering of household consumption, water cost and water pressure. The main parameters in sewage that are measured to assess the sewage strength or quality as well as treatment options include: solids, indicators of organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and indicators of fecal contamination. These can be considered to be the main macro-pollutants in sewage. Sewage contains pathogens which stem from fecal matter. The following four types of pathogens are found in sewage: pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa (in the form of cysts or oocysts) and helminths (in the form of eggs). In order to quantify the organic matter, indirect methods are commonly used: mainly the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Management of sewage includes collection and transport for release into the environment, after a treatment level that is compatible with the local requirements for discharge into water bodies, onto soil or for reuse applications. Disposal options include dilution (self-purification of water bodies, making use of their assimilative capacity if possible), marine outfalls, land disposal and sewage farms. All disposal options may run risks of causing water pollution.