Radioactive contamination

  • radioactive contamination
  • Contamination of a substance, living organism or site caused by radioactive material.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) definition). Such contamination presents a hazard because of the radioactive decay of the contaminants, which produces such harmful effects as ionizing radiation (namely alpha, beta, and gamma rays) and free neutrons. The degree of hazard is determined by the concentration of the contaminants, the energy of the radiation being emitted , the type of radiation, and the proximity of the contamination to organs of the body. It is important to be clear that the contamination gives rise to the radiation hazard, and the terms "radiation" and "contamination" are not interchangeable. The sources of radioactive pollution can be classified into two groups: natural and man-made. Following an atmospheric nuclear weapon discharge or a nuclear reactor containment breach, the air, soil, people, plants, and animals in the vicinity will become contaminated by nuclear fuel and fission products. A spilled vial of radioactive material like uranyl nitrate may contaminate the floor and any rags used to wipe up the spill. Cases of widespread radioactive contamination include the Bikini Atoll, the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the Chernobyl disaster, and the area around the Mayak facility in Russia.

    放射能汚染(ほうしゃのうおせん、英: radioactive contamination, radiological contamination)とは、放射性物質によって望まれない場所や物質(表面、固体、液体、気体、および、人体を含む)が汚染されること、または、その放射性物質の存在を指す。量、つまり、表面上(単位表面積)の放射能を指す言葉として用いることは、あまり、正式には行われていない。放射能汚染の語は、意図せず、望まれない放射能が存在すること示してはいるが、関係する危険性の大きさについて具体的な指標を与えるものではない。