Noise pollution

  • noise pollution
  • Harmful or unwanted sounds in the environment, which in specific locals, can be measured and averaged over a period of time.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Noise pollution, also known as environmental noise or sound pollution, is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them harmful to a degree. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport, and propagation systems. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise disintegration or pollution, side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. Some of the main sources of noise in residential areas include loud music, transportation (traffic, rail, airplanes, etc.), lawn care maintenance, construction, electrical generators, wind turbines, explosions, and people. Documented problems associated with noise in urban environments go back as far as ancient Rome. Today, the average noise level of 98 decibels (dB) exceeds the WHO value of 50 dB allowed for residential areas. Research suggests that noise pollution in the United States is the highest in low-income and racial minority neighborhoods, and noise pollution associated with household electricity generators is an emerging environmental degradation in many developing nations. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss. A substantial amount of the noise that humans produce occurs in the ocean. Up until recently, most research on noise impacts has been focused on marine mammals, and to a lesser degree, fish. In the past few years, scientists have shifted to conducting studies on invertebrates and their responses to anthropogenic sounds in the marine environment. This research is essential, especially considering that invertebrates make up 75% of marine species, and thus compose a large percentage of ocean food webs. Of the studies that have been conducted, a sizable variety in families of invertebrates have been represented in the research. A variation in the complexity of their sensory systems exists, which allows scientists to study a range of characteristics and develop a better understanding of anthropogenic noise impacts on living organisms.

    騒音(そうおん、英語: noise pollution)は、典型七公害の1つであり、人の健康及び生活環境に影響を及ぼす。 騒音は、不快で好ましくない音をいうが、主観的な面があることは否めないと考えられている。例えばオックスフォード英語辞典では、騒音の定義について「望ましくない音」と説明している。また、騒音問題を国際的に扱う際には「騒音」の語義が持つニュアンスが、諸言語において僅かずつ異なることが問題となる。 騒音規制の法律には、公衆を擾乱する特定の音を発する行為を規制するタイプと、音の物理的な特性に基づいて騒音評価方法とその基準値を定めて規制するタイプがある。前者は騒音の量的測定が可能になる以前から存在する、伝統的な騒音問題への対処方法であり、おおまかな世論を含んだ質的な規制といえる。後者は「一定以上の大きい音=騒音」という量的な評価に基づくが、日本の国立環境研究所の調査では、音量に関わりなく、望ましくない音は『騒音』として苦情の対象となりえる。 激しい騒音は人体、特に聴力に損傷を与える。労働安全衛生の場では医学的見地から、20世紀後半より世界各地で騒音に対する量的基準が制定されている。また、交通騒音などの環境騒音についても、環境性睡眠障害や心疾患等の罹患率・有病率の上昇が認められることから、世界保健機関およびWHO欧州事務局がガイドラインを定めている。