Groundwater pollution

  • groundwater pollution
  • Contamination of any water found under the earth's surface by any leaching pollutants, such as inorganic compounds (chlorides, nitrates, heavy metals, etc.), synthetic organic chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, etc.) and pathogens (bacteria, parasites, etc.).
Abstract from DBPedia
    Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way into groundwater. This type of water pollution can also occur naturally due to the presence of a minor and unwanted constituent, contaminant, or impurity in the groundwater, in which case it is more likely referred to as contamination rather than pollution. Pollution can occur from on-site sanitation systems, landfills, effluent from wastewater treatment plants, leaking sewers, petrol filling stations or from over application of fertilizers in agriculture. Pollution (or contamination) can also occur from naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic or fluoride. Using polluted groundwater causes hazards to public health through poisoning or the spread of disease (water-borne diseases). The pollutant often creates a contaminant plume within an aquifer. Movement of water and dispersion within the aquifer spreads the pollutant over a wider area. Its advancing boundary, often called a plume edge, can intersect with groundwater wells and surface water, such as seeps and springs, making the water supplies unsafe for humans and wildlife. The movement of the plume, called a plume front, may be analyzed through a hydrological transport model or groundwater model. Analysis of groundwater pollution may focus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, and the nature of the contaminants. Different mechanisms have influence on the transport of pollutants, e.g. diffusion, adsorption, precipitation, decay, in the groundwater. The interaction of groundwater contamination with surface waters is analyzed by use of hydrology transport models. Interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. For example, many rivers and lakes are fed by groundwater. This means that damage to groundwater aquifers e.g. by fracking or over abstraction, could therefore affect the rivers and lakes that rely on it. Saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers is an example of such interactions. Prevention methods include: applying the precautionary principle, groundwater quality monitoring, land zoning for groundwater protection, locating on-site sanitation systems correctly and applying legislation. When pollution has occurred, management approaches include point-of-use water treatment, groundwater remediation, or as a last resort, abandonment.

    地下水汚染(ちかすいおせん)とは、地下水中に重金属・有機溶剤・農薬・油などの各種の物質や細菌などが、自然環境や人の健康・生活へ影響を与える程度に含まれている状態をいう。公害の一つ。地下水へ混入した原因は、人為・自然を問わない。また混入している物質は、有害/無害を問わない。 なお表流水や陸水(河川や湖沼)の同様の現象は、水質汚濁と言う。