Geothermal energy

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  • geothermal energy
definition
  • An energy produced by tapping the earth's internal heat. At present, the only available technologies to do this are those that extract heat from hydrothermal convection systems, where water or steam transfer the heat from the deeper part of the earth to the areas where the energy can be tapped. The amount of pollutants found in geothermal vary from area to area but may contain arsenic, boron, selenium, lead, cadmium, and fluorides. They also may contain hydrogen sulphide, mercury, ammonia, radon, carbon dioxide, and methane.
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Abstract from DBPedia
    Geothermal energy is the thermal energy in the Earth's crust which originates from the formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of materials in currently uncertain but possibly roughly equal proportions. The high temperature and pressure in Earth's interior cause some rock to melt and solid mantle to behave plastically, resulting in parts of the mantle convecting upward since it is lighter than the surrounding rock and temperatures at the core–mantle boundary can reach over 4000 °C (7200 °F). Geothermal heating, for example using water from hot springs has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, however more recently geothermal power, the term used for generation of electricity from geothermal energy, has gained in importance. It is estimated that the earth's geothermal resources are theoretically more than adequate to supply humanity's energy needs, although only a very small fraction is currently being profitably exploited, often in areas near tectonic plate boundaries. As a result of government assisted research and industry experience, the cost of generating geothermal power decreased by 25% over the 1980s and 1990s. More recent technological advances have dramatically reduced costs and thereby expanded the range and size of viable resource and in 2021 the U.S. Department of Energy estimates that geothermal energy from a power plant "built today" costs about $0.05/kWh. Worldwide, 13,900 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power was available in 2019. An additional 28 gigawatts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications as of 2010. Forecasts for the future of geothermal power depend on assumptions about technology, energy prices, subsidies, plate boundary movement and interest rates. Pilot programs like EWEB's customer opt in Green Power Program show that customers would be willing to pay a little more for a renewable energy source like geothermal. About 100 thousand people are employed in the industry. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots γῆ (gê), meaning Earth, and θερμός (thermós), meaning hot.

    地熱(ちねつ、じねつ)は、地球内部の熱源に由来する熱エネルギーである。エネルギーの移動形態としての性質を強調するときには、地熱エネルギー(英: geothermal energy)という語も用いられる。太陽光や風力、水力、バイオマスとともに、温室効果ガスを排出しない再生可能エネルギーとして今後の利活用増大が期待されている。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Geothermal_energy)

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