• Nitrogen
  • Nitrogen is a plant nutrient that is a component of proteins, nucleic acids, coenzymes, and chlorophylls. Plants that are deficient in nitrogen have stunted growth, and light-green older leaves.  
Abstract from DBPedia
    Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It is the lightest pnictogen, and at room temperature it is a transparent, odorless diatomic gas. Nitrogen is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System. On Earth, the element forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere and is the most abundant uncombined element. The element nitrogen was discovered as a separable component of air by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N) dominates nitrogen chemistry, causing difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting the N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time causing release of large amounts of often useful energy when the compounds burn, explode, or decay back into nitrogen gas. Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilizers, and fertilizer nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. Apart from its use in fertilizers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar fabric and cyanoacrylate "super" glue. Nitrogen is a constituent of every major pharmacological drug class, including antibiotics. Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide. Plant alkaloids (often defense chemicals) contain nitrogen by definition, and many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as caffeine and morphine, are either alkaloids or synthetic mimics that act (as many plant alkaloids do) on receptors of animal neurotransmitters (for example, synthetic amphetamines). Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate. The human body contains about 3% by mass of nitrogen, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.

    窒素(ちっそ、英: nitrogen, 羅: nitrogenium)は原子番号 7 の元素。元素記号は N。原子量は 14.007。空気の約78.08 %を占めるほか、アミノ酸をはじめとする多くの生体物質中に含まれており、地球のほぼすべての生物にとって必須の元素である。 一般に「窒素」という場合は、窒素の単体である窒素分子(窒素ガス、N2)を指すことが多い。窒素分子は常温では無味無臭の気体として安定した形で存在する。また、液化した窒素分子(液体窒素)は冷却剤としてよく使用されるが、液体窒素温度 (-195.8 ℃, 77 K) から液化する。


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