• Convection
  • In meteorology, atmospheric (wind) motions that are predominently vertical, resulting in vertical transport and mixing of atmospheric properties. 
Abstract from DBPedia
    Convection is the movement of groups of molecules within fluids such as liquids or gases, and within rheids. Convection takes place through advection, diffusion or both. Convection cannot take place in solids because neither bulk current flows nor significant diffusion can take place in solids. Diffusion of heat can take place in solids, but that is called heat conduction. Convection can be demonstrated by placing a heat source (e.g. a Bunsen burner) at the side of a glass full of a liquid, and observing the changes in temperature in the glass caused by the warmer ghost fluid moving into cooler areas. Convective heat transfer is one of the major types of heat transfer, and convection is also a major mode of mass transfer in fluids. Convective heat and mass transfer take place both by diffusion – the random Brownian motion of individual particles in the fluid – and by advection, in which matter or heat is transported by the larger-scale motion of currents in the fluid. In the context of heat and mass transfer, the term "convection" is used to refer to the sum of advective and diffusive transfer. In common use the term "convection" may refer loosely to heat transfer by convection, as opposed to mass transfer by convection, or the convection process in general. Sometimes "convection" is even used to refer specifically to "free heat convection" (natural heat convection) as opposed to forced heat convection. However, in mechanics the correct use of the word is the general sense, and different types of convection should be qualified for clarity. Convection can be qualified in terms of being natural, forced, gravitational, granular, or thermomagnetic. It may also be said to be due to combustion, capillary action, or Marangoni and Weissenberg effects. Heat transfer by natural convection plays a role in the structure of Earth's atmosphere, its oceans, and its mantle. Discrete convective cells in the atmosphere can be seen as clouds, with stronger convection resulting in thunderstorms. Natural convection also plays a role in stellar physics.

    対流(たいりゅう、英語: convection)とは、流体において温度や表面張力などが原因により不均質性が生ずるため、その内部で重力によって引き起こされる流動が生ずる現象である。 地球の大気においては、大気の鉛直方向の運動は高度 0 キロメートルから約 11 キロメートルの層に限られ、この領域を対流圏と呼ぶ。また地球や惑星の内部では、対流により内部の熱源から地表面への熱輸送が生じており、地表面の変動を引き起こす原因となっている。 近年、計算機の性能が向上し、流体の運動方程式(ナビエ-ストークスの式)を高精度に計算することが可能となったため、コンピュータを用いたシミュレーションによる対流現象の研究が盛んに行われており、工学的な技術としても重要な分野である。また惑星内部の対流など、実験・観測が不可能な領域における流体の挙動を理論的に解明する研究も行われている。


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