Silicate

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  • Silicate
definition
  • A charged molecule composed of atoms of silicon and oxygen, available to plants and phytoplankton as a nutrient.  
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Abstract from DBPedia
    In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula [SiO(4−2x)−4−x]n, where 0 ≤ x < 2. The family includes orthosilicate SiO4−4 (x = 0), metasilicate SiO2−3 (x = 1), and pyrosilicate Si2O6−7 (x = 0.5, n = 2). The name is also used for any salt of such anions, such as sodium metasilicate; or any ester containing the corresponding chemical group, such as tetramethyl orthosilicate. Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate [SiO2−3]n), double chains (as in [Si2O2−5]n, and sheets (as in [Si2O2−5]n. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide SiO2 (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x = 2 in the general formula. The term also includes minerals where aluminium or other tetravalent atoms replace some of the silicon atoms, as in the aluminosilicates. Such silicates comprise most of Earth's crust and mantle, as well as the other terrestrial planets, rocky moons, and asteroids. Silicates are extremely important materials, both natural (such as granite, gravel, and garnet) and artificial (such as Portland cement, ceramics, glass, and waterglass), for all sorts of technological and artistic activities. The name "silicate" is sometimes extended to any anions containing silicon, even if they do not fit the general formula or contain other atoms besides oxygen; such as the [Si(OH)6]2− or hexafluorosilicate [SiF6]2−.

    ケイ酸塩(ケイさんえん、珪酸塩、英: silicate)は、1個または数個のケイ素原子を中心とし、電気陰性な配位子がこれを取り囲んだ構造を持つアニオンを含む化合物を指す。シリケートとも呼ばれる。この定義ではヘキサフルオロシリケート [SiF6]2− などの化学種も含まれるが、一般的によく見られるケイ酸塩は酸素を配位子とするものである。ケイ酸塩アニオンは他のカチオンと結合し、電気的に中性な化合物を形成する。 シリカ(二酸化ケイ素) SiO2 はケイ酸塩の一種と考えられることもある。これはケイ素周りが負電荷を帯びないため、追加のカチオンを含まない特別な例である。シリカは石英やその多形などの鉱物として自然界に見られる。 ケイ酸塩鉱物に代表される大多数のケイ酸塩では、ケイ素原子は4個の酸素原子によって囲まれた四面体構造をとる。鉱物の種類によってこの四面体が連なる度合いは異なり、単独、対、クラスター、環状、鎖状、二本鎖状、層状、3次元網目状など多岐にわたる。ケイ酸塩鉱物はこのアニオン構造の違いによって分類される。 酸素原子周りの空間が少ないため、通常の圧力条件では6配位のケイ酸塩はまれにしか見られないが、 などにヘキサヒドロキシシリケートイオン [Si(OH)6]2− として含まれる。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Silicate)

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