• Caldera
  • A large circular depression in a volcano.
Abstract from DBPedia
    A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time period structural support for the crust above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface (from one to dozens of kilometers in diameter). Although sometimes described as a crater, the feature is actually a type of sinkhole, as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact. Only seven known caldera-forming collapses have occurred since the start of the 20th century, most recently at Bárðarbunga volcano in Iceland.

    カルデラ(西: caldera)とは、火山の活動によってできた大きな凹地のことである。「釜」「鍋」という意味のスペイン語に由来し、カルデラが初めて研究されたカナリア諸島での現地名による。本来は単に地形的な凹みを指す言葉で明瞭な定義はなく、比較的大きな火山火口や火山地域の盆地状の地形一般を指す場合がある。過去にカルデラが形成されたものの、現在は侵食や埋没によって地表に明瞭凹地として地形をとどめていない場合もカルデラと呼ぶ。


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