• Pigments
  • Pigments are light-absorbing molecules. In addition to chlorophyll, other pigments, principally yellow and orange carotenoids, as well as other forms of chlorophyll, are also present in green plants. These molecules absorb light and then pass the energy to the chlorophyll a. Accessory pigments, like the carotenoids, enable the plants to use more of the light than is trapped by chlorophyll a alone.  
Abstract from DBPedia
    A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food, and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants, usually ground into a fine powder. This powder is added to a binder (or vehicle), a relatively neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment and gives the paint its adhesion. A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble in its vehicle (resulting in a suspension), and a dye, which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle (resulting in a solution). A colorant can act as either a pigment or a dye depending on the vehicle involved. In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt. The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment. The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility. In 2006, around 7.4 million tons of inorganic, organic and special pigments were marketed worldwide. Asia has the highest rate on a quantity basis followed by Europe and North America. By 2020, revenues will have risen to approx. US$34.2 billion. The global demand on pigments was roughly US$20.5 billion in 2009, around 1.5-2% up from the previous year. It is predicted to increase in a stable growth rate in the coming years. The worldwide sales are said to increase up to US$24.5 billion in 2015, and reach US$27.5 billion in 2018.

    顔料(がんりょう、pigment)は、着色に用いる粉末で水や油に不溶のものの総称。着色に用いる粉末で水や油に溶けるものは染料と呼ばれる。 特定の波長の光を選択的に吸収することで、反射または透過する色を変化させる。蛍光顔料を除く、ほぼ全ての顔料の呈色プロセスは、自ら光を発する蛍光や燐光などのルミネセンスとは物理的に異なるプロセスである。 顔料は、塗料、インク、合成樹脂、織物、化粧品、食品などの着色に使われている。多くの場合粉末状にして使う。バインダー、ビークルあるいは展色剤と呼ばれる、接着剤や溶剤を主成分とする比較的無色の原料と混合しするなどして、塗料やインクといった製品となる。実用的な分類であり、分野・領域によって、顔料として認知されている物質が異なる。 顔料の世界市場規模は2006年時点で740万トンだった。2006年の生産額は176億USドル(130億ユーロ)で、ヨーロッパが首位であり、それに北米とアジアが続いている。生産および需要の中心はアジア(中国とインド)に移りつつある。

    (Source: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pigment)