Surface roughness

  • Surface Roughness
  • The unevenness of the land surface that results in friction for fluid flow. This can be influenced by the presence of such things as vegetation, water bodies, mountains and other landforms, etc.
Abstract from DBPedia
    Surface roughness often shortened to roughness, is a component of surface texture. It is quantified by the deviations in the direction of the normal vector of a real surface from its ideal form. If these deviations are large, the surface is rough; if they are small, the surface is smooth. In surface metrology, roughness is typically considered to be the high-frequency, short-wavelength component of a measured surface. However, in practice it is often necessary to know both the amplitude and frequency to ensure that a surface is fit for a purpose. Roughness plays an important role in determining how a real object will interact with its environment. In tribology, rough surfaces usually wear more quickly and have higher friction coefficients than smooth surfaces. Roughness is often a good predictor of the performance of a mechanical component, since irregularities on the surface may form nucleation sites for cracks or corrosion. On the other hand, roughness may promote adhesion. Generally speaking, rather than scale specific descriptors, cross-scale descriptors such as surface fractality provide more meaningful predictions of mechanical interactions at surfaces including contact stiffness and static friction. Although a high roughness value is often undesirable, it can be difficult and expensive to control in manufacturing. For example, it is difficult and expensive to control surface roughness of fused deposition modelling (FDM) manufactured parts. Decreasing the roughness of a surface usually increases its manufacturing cost. This often results in a trade-off between the manufacturing cost of a component and its performance in application. Roughness can be measured by manual comparison against a "surface roughness comparator" (a sample of known surface roughness), but more generally a surface profile measurement is made with a profilometer. These can be of the contact variety (typically a diamond stylus) or optical (e.g.: a white light interferometer or laser scanning confocal microscope). However, controlled roughness can often be desirable. For example, a gloss surface can be too shiny to the eye and too slippery to the finger (a touchpad is a good example) so a controlled roughness is required. This is a case where both amplitude and frequency are very important.

    表面粗さ(または単に粗さ、英: surface roughness)とは表面性状の尺度の一つ。物体の表面形状を理想表面と比べたとき、鉛直方向の偏差がどれだけあるかで計られる。偏差が全体に大きければ表面は粗く、小さければ滑らかである。通常、粗さとは測定された表面形状のうち短波長で空間周波数の高い成分を指す()。しかし、実用的には周波数に加え振幅が分からなければ表面を評価することはできない。 現実の物体間の相互作用は粗さに左右される。ふつう粗い表面は滑らかな表面と比べて摩耗が激しく、摩擦係数は大きい(トライボロジーを見よ)。また、表面に不均一な部分があるとクラックや腐食の核生成サイトになりうるため、粗さは機械部品の性能を計る指標ともなる。その一方、表面が粗いと接着性が良くなることもある。 多くの場合表面は滑らかな方が望ましいが、工業的に粗さを制御するのは困難である。表面粗さを低減すると、生産コストはふつう指数関数的に増加する。これが部品の性能と低コストを両立させられない原因となることが多い。 粗さがわかっているサンプル(粗さ比較板)と触って比べるだけでも粗さを測定することはできるが、一般的に表面粗さ測定にはプロファイロメータが用いられる。プロファイロメータには接触式(主にダイヤモンド触針による)および非接触式(白色光干渉計など)がある。 場合によっては、適度な粗さが求められることもある。たとえばタッチパッドのような製品では、光沢表面にしてしまうと反射がまぶしかったり指が滑ったりするので適度な粗さが必要である。このような場合、振幅と空間周波数の両者が重要になる。


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